argon: An element first discovered on August 13, 1894 by the Scottish chemist Sir William Ramsey and the English physicist John William Stratt, better known as Lord Rayleigh. Argon was the first “noble” gas that did not chemically react with other elements. For his discovery, Ramsey will receive the 1904 Nobel Prize in Chemistry and the 1904 Nobel Prize in Physics for Raleigh.
astronomer: A scientist working in the field of research dealing with celestial objects, space and the physical universe.
atmosphere: A gas shell that surrounds the Earth, another planet, or the moon.
aurora borealis: A light reflection in the sky caused by the collision of energetic particles from the Sun with gas molecules in the upper atmosphere of the planet. The most famous of these is the aurora borealis, or the northern lights. On some outer gas planets, such as Jupiter and Saturn, the combination of rapid rotation and a strong magnetic field leads to high electric currents in the upper atmosphere, above the poles of the planets. It can also cause aurora borealis in their upper atmosphere.
carbon: A chemical element that is the physical basis of all life on Earth. Carbon exists freely in the form of graphite and diamond. It is an important part of coal, limestone and oil and is able to chemically bind itself, forming a huge number of chemically, biologically and commercially important molecules. (in climate research) The term carbon will sometimes be used almost interchangeably with carbon dioxide to denote the potential impact that some action, product, policy or process may have on long-term global warming.
carbon dioxide: (or CO2) A colorless, odorless gas that is produced by all animals when the oxygen they inhale reacts with the carbon-rich food they ate. Carbon dioxide is also released during the combustion of organic matter (including fossil fuels such as oil or gas). Carbon dioxide acts as a greenhouse gas, trapping heat in the Earth’s atmosphere. Plants convert carbon dioxide into oxygen during photosynthesis, a process they use to prepare their own food.
climate: Weather conditions that usually exist in one area as a whole or over a long period of time.
climate change: Long-term significant changes in the Earth’s climate. This can occur naturally or in response to human activities, including burning fossil fuels and deforestation.
cloud: A plume of molecules or particles, such as water droplets, that move under the action of an external force, such as wind, radiation, or water currents. (in Atmospheric Science) The mass of water droplets and ice crystals in the air moving in a plume is usually high in the Earth’s atmosphere. Its movement is driven by winds. (in computing) A network of computers (hardware) known as servers that are connected to the Internet. They can be used to store data and computer programs (programs) that can be accessed by one or many people simultaneously and from anywhere in the world.
dwarf planet: One of the small celestial objects in the solar system. Like a real planet, it revolves around the sun. However, dwarf planets are too small to qualify as real planets. Bright examples of these objects are Pluto and Ceres.
exoplanet: Abbreviation from extrasolar planet, it is a planet orbiting a star outside our solar system.
gas giant: A giant planet made up mostly of helium and hydrogen, which are gases on Earth. Jupiter and Saturn are gas giants.
greenhouse effect: Warming of the Earth’s atmosphere due to the accumulation of gases that contain heat such as carbon dioxide and methane. Scientists call these pollutants greenhouse gases. The greenhouse effect can also occur in small conditions. For example, when cars are left in the sun, incoming sunlight is converted into heat, lingers inside and can quickly make indoor temperatures a health risk.
greenhouse gas: A gas that promotes the greenhouse effect by absorbing heat. Carbon dioxide is one example of a greenhouse gas.
helium: An inert gas that is the lightest representative of a number of noble gases. Helium can become solid at -272 degrees Celsius (-458 degrees Fahrenheit).
hydrogen: The lightest element in the universe. Like gas, it is colorless, odorless and highly flammable. It is an integral part of the many fuels, fats and chemicals that make up living tissues. It consists of a single proton (which serves as its nucleus) that revolves around a single electron.
Jupiter: (in astronomy) The largest planet in the solar system, it has the shortest length of day (9 hours 55 minutes). The gas giant, its low density indicates that this planet is composed mainly of light elements of hydrogen and helium. This planet also emits more heat than it receives from the Sun as gravity compresses its mass (and slowly shrinks the planet).
methane: Hydrocarbon with the chemical formula CH4 (that is, four hydrogen atoms are connected to one carbon atom). It is a natural component of what is known as natural gas. It is also released during the decomposition of plant material in wetlands and belches cows and other ruminants. In terms of climate, methane is 20 times stronger than carbon dioxide, retains heat in the Earth’s atmosphere, making it a very important greenhouse gas.
month: a natural satellite of any planet.
nitrogen: A colorless, odorless and non-reactive gaseous element that forms about 78 percent of the Earth’s atmosphere. Its scientific symbol is N. Nitrogen is released in the form of nitrogen oxides during the combustion of fossil fuels. It comes in two stable forms. Both have 14 protons in the nucleus. But one has 14 neutrons in that nucleus; the second has 15. Of this difference they are known as nitrogen-14 and nitrogen-15 (or 14N and 15N).
oxygen: A gas that makes up about 21 percent of the Earth’s atmosphere. All animals and many microorganisms need oxygen to feed their growth (and metabolism).
ozone: a colorless gas consisting of molecules containing three oxygen atoms. It can be formed high in the atmosphere or at ground level. When it is formed on the Earth’s surface, ozone is a pollutant that irritates the eyes and lungs. It is also the main ingredient of smog.
planets: A large celestial object that revolves around a star, but unlike a star does not create visible light.
Pluto: A distant world located in the Kuiper Belt, just behind Neptune. Pluto is the ninth largest object orbiting the Sun.
Saturn: The sixth planet in our solar system. One of the two gas giants, this planet takes 10.6 hours to turn (complete the day) and 29.5 Earth years to make one orbit around the Sun. It has at least 82 months. But what distinguishes this planet the most is the wide and flat plane of the bright rings that revolve around it.
star: The main building block from which galaxies are made. Stars develop when gravity condenses gas clouds. When they become hot enough, the stars will emit light and sometimes other forms of electromagnetic radiation. The sun is our nearest star.
ultraviolet: A portion of the light spectrum that is close to purple but invisible to the human eye.
water vapor: Water in a gaseous state, capable of being in the air.
the weather: Atmospheric conditions in a localized place and at a specific time. It is usually described in terms of certain characteristics such as air pressure, humidity, humidity, any precipitation (rain, snow or ice), temperature and wind speed. Weather is real conditions that happen anytime, anywhere. This is different from climate, which is a description of conditions that typically occur in some common regions during a particular month or season.
Scientists say: Atmosphere Scientific news for students
Source link Scientists say: Atmosphere Scientific news for students